The 46-year-old joins the club on a three-year deal after a successful three-and-a-half years at Motherwell.
That included leading the Steelmen to two cup finals in one season and a top-three finish, which brought Europa League football to the club.
Robinson made 448 appearances during his playing career and had spells with clubs including Tottenham Hotspur, AFC Bournemouth, Preston North End and Luton Town before retiring in 2008.
He also played seven times for the Northern Ireland national team.
He first joined Motherwell as their assistant manager six years ago under Ian Baraclough and also held the same role with the Northern Ireland team alongside that.
After a spell as manager at Oldham Athletic, he returned to Motherwell before taking over as boss.
Robinson said: “I am delighted to have agreed to become the manager of Morecambe FC and I am really looking forward to the challenge ahead.
“I have been very impressed with the club and everyone involved in the process.
“We are looking to build on last season’s successful promotion campaign and look to firmly establish the club in League One.
“There is a lot of work in terms of recruitment in the coming weeks and getting us prepared for the club’s first season in League One.”
Former Rochdale and Tranmere Rovers manager Keith Hill had been the early favourite to replace Derek Adams, along with former Sunderland boss Phil Parkinson, but the Shrimps outlined why they chose Robinson.
Joint chairman, Rod Taylor, said: “We are delighted that Stephen has agreed to join us for our first season in League One.
“We had a number of quality applicants but we were especially impressed by Stephen’s dynamism, his plans for the club and his contacts, and we believe he will take the club forward.
“He has an excellent reputation and we are looking forward to working with him as we plan for an historic season.”
Fellow co-chairman, Graham Howse, added: “We went on record that we wanted to move quickly on this appointment and we have every confidence in Stephen putting a strong squad together for life in League One.”
John McMahon stays as assistant manager with former Shrimps striker Diarmuid O’Carroll returning as first team coach after working with Robinson at Motherwell.
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